Hope: foe or ally?

by Admin on

How long can a man survive without hope? If all hope was to be lost, would you live to see the next minute?

<em>take a man’s hope away and you take away his will to live.

The longest time breath held voluntarily (male) is 24 min 3.45 secs and was achieved by Aleix Segura Vendrell (Spain), in Barcelona, Spain, on 28 February 2016.

Aleix Segura Vendrell is a professional freediver. The attempt took place at the 17th Mediterranean Dive Show. (source:

Humans cannot survive without oxygen. science has taught us that after about 6 minutes, the brain begins to die irreversibly if deprived of oxygen. How Vendrell achieved such feat is breath-taking literally! maybe science needs a review, as usual.

How long can a man survive without hope? If all hope was to be lost, would you live to see the next minute? It is impossible to answer this question correctly unless you’ve lost ALL hope at least once. Those who may have been able to help us are those who have taken their own lives in an irreversible act of suicide, but unfortunately they are no longer with us.

while there is life, there is hope.

There is that constant feeling that things will get better, that even if they don’t we will get better and find other ways to survive. Hope is a man’s best friend, a frustrated soul is quick to turn and cling to some fibres of hope, some wish that a turn around might be just around the corner.

I work in the hospital, and it is a daily affair to see people filled with hopes of recovery either for themselves or for a relative. Sometimes, hope delivers and meets expectations, other times, it doesn’t show up. Even at that, people still cling to it. They are quick to invoke a close cousin of hope, Fate. So often do we resort to fate whenever hope falls short. We accept and move on.

protracted hope wearies the soul.

Euthanasia is a difficult topic and raises a lot of ethical debate, many thanks to hope.
One time at work, a pregnant woman was to be operated upon urgently to ensure she and her baby stay fine. After the operation which I was a part of, the baby who at the time of delivery wasn’t responding as expected was still not showing any signs of improvement. The baby had already been resuscitated promptly by every means available. After a few more tries, the baby was still blue. We had done our best and hoped the supporting system instituted for the baby would eventually work. About 30 minutes later, there was a constant loud cry coming from the ward, it was the same baby, now all pink and responsive, as though nothing was ever wrong.
That example will make me always hang on for every other unresponsive baby, because, who knows, it just might make it too. No matter how many babies fail to make it eventually, the memory of that one who made it will breed hope.

Miracles, testimonies of turn-arounds breed hope and make people wait situations out. Hope is strongest when there are no other options. It is the currency of the penniless – more rightly, It is the currency of us all, most palpable when we’re down and out.

Situations that could easily have been put an end to linger and continue because we wait it out and cling to hope. This is no argument to support suicide or an attempt of it, but rather, situations of the living that we should totally turn our backs on. Let me give you a few examples:

Josephine has lost an arm, four teeth and all her pride. She related her ordeal yesterday, when we realised her wounds were inflicted on her by her husband. It’s been going on for 5 years, she had hoped he’ll change.

Coker has been married for four years now, with children. He wants a divorce. He can’t cope any longer. His spouse has remained the careless woman she has always been. He knew this even before they got married, he thought she’d outgrow it and become more responsible when she becomes a mother. He had hoped she’ll change.

Lanre left home at 5am on saturday morning. He was bent on getting fuel at all cost regardless of the fuel scarcity. He was confident that his early rise will yield. His fuel tank gauge was already lit with the warning sign. A hundred (100) meters later, he passed a filling station already having about 50 cars waiting in line even when the station was yet to open. “Just turn around and go home”, an inner voice told him. No, i’ll just check the next one, he thought. He repeated this thought at 1000m, 2000m and 5000m. The car has finally come to a halt and won’t start. It’s 5.45am and lanre has begun a compulsory jogging back home. He had hoped he’ll find fuel.

Fidelis has now made it to his final year in the 7th year of his 4 year course. He has the many industrial strikes and political ineptitude to thank for that. He finished top of his class and as the best graduating student in the university that year. His parents are well to do and had plans lined up for him to get additional qualifications outside the country. Fidelis was too patriotic for his parent’s liking. It is the reason he was just graduating after rejecting an opportunity to study abroad for his first degree. He has definitely learnt his lessons now, his dad told his mother at his convocation. Fidelis has hope to blame for staying back and finishing late; the same hope he clung to at the times he almost lost it. he had thought the new government were going to fulfill their promises.

Hope that here will soon be better is what keeps us from going there; hope that there will be greener, is what pushes us away from here.
Hope is a pill that must be taken for the right ailment, lest it becomes poison.

Yet, hope may really not be the problem or the enemy; but “hope in what or who” speaks volumes.
as long as hope lies in things uncertain and things powerless, it will shatter or be shattered, occasionally it will yield.
As for me, my hope is nowhere near this world or any of the things or people in it, not even myself. I have found undwindling hope, self-kindling in fact, in God alone, powered by Jesus, the Christ.

Sing with me if you will,

My hope is built on nothing else
Than Jesus’ blood and righteousness
I dare not trust the sweetest frame
But wholly lean on Jesus name
On Christ the solid rock I stand
All other ground is sinking sand.

I wish you the kind of hope that makes not ashamed.

Oluwatosin Fatade

Go MAD(make a difference)!

by Admin on

How to go M.A.D (make a difference)

The skies don’t seem so dark as before; but rather than soothe, it scares me. In its whole visible extent from where I stand tonight; there’s not a star in sight, and the moon: absent. While I wondered what other occasion made the moon stand me up, the lights went off. Yes, electricity –still happens around here sadly. I mentioned the moon stood me up, we’ve been keeping up appearances in the past few days, basically she shows up in different attires and I take shots. I have her all saved in my memory in full, half, and crescent garments. Not more than fifteen blinks after the darkness enveloped the area, my thoughts halted at the symphony of starting engines that pierced the silent night. In theory, light travels faster than sound as is the case when lightning precedes a thunderstorm. But tonight, the sound of generators welcomed the much needed lights they gave.

What am I doing out here in the night anyway? Let me tell you about it.

I was going home from work after a long day that almost refused to end, (I could bet the second hand of the clock took some anticlockwise turns repeatedly), and there was this thought that refused to leave my mind. The thought practically let itself in and felt at home uninvited. There wasn’t a thing I could do about it – I washed, did dishes, arranged and even slept but it was right there even in my waking moment, so I finally had to say hi. So it’s been making rounds in my head ever since and I’m going to have to talk about it like right now.

No one can or will ever change the world.

I promise you that I fought this thought with everything I had, I took several mental trips down history lane – each time I arrived right back at this mind-boggling thought. This thought seems to stand alone against every hope mantra of making the world a better place that I have known.

If you intend to clothe a few children at the orphanage, do so only after there’s no kid on your street without decent clothes on.

If you’re going to feed a nearby village or community, it would make no sense if someone is dying of hunger at your corridor.

Don’t start an education endowment fund or scholarship for strangers when some of your own people cannot afford school.

As a rule of thumb, don’t go about cleaning the community gutter when your room’s a mess – that’s hypocrisy, showmanship and gross attention-seeking.

It’s been said times over that if everyone cleaned their front yard, the whole town would be clean. Hard to argue against that.

Let’s quit burning an area of land in preparation for Tree-Planting to support a campaign to end global warming. Driving a car that’ll give off fumes to such an event should be criminal, but how evitable is that? As long as we keep up with the sources of our problems, finding solutions will always be beyond reach, a never ending race.

If at least one relative whether near or distant stood up for each child that lost one or both parents, orphanages wouldn’t exist. But it seems to be the way of the world to first create a problem and afterwards begin a never-ending race of finding solutions.
Whatever your grand plans and lofty ideas, let your homefront, your locale be your testing ground. Run your trials there and turn out successful before you unleash on the unsuspecting world.
Nothing ridicules a great speech like dissenting voices of the speaker’s household in the audience.

Without trying to belittle or make light of the efforts of great men and women who have made tremendous impact, I make bold to say none of them has changed the world; and to be quite frank, none of us ever will. At best, our neighborhood will not forget ever. The size and extent or reach of your ‘neighborhood’ will be your own doing, but definitely not the world. As long as one child still gets mutilated, whoever started the campaign against genital mutilation is yet to change the world. If in doubt of this statement, ask the mutilated child. But if many voices were to fight the cause, changing the world might become possible – no single name however will be able to boast of having changed the world.

Imagine what a good shot of you taken by a photographer with you in your best pose ever would look like…what if you then discover in there that your zipper was wide open the whole time, would you still feel proud of that picture? Little pockets here and there matter, but it is in sync with other pockets that sense is made out of them. Alone, not much is to be said. A bucket of water and an ocean are basically the same in terms of water composition save for volume. If the ocean was to be split into its constituent parts, it’ll never be able to boast.

I believe in Jesus as Saviour and that means I believe he is going to change the world. But as of now, its hope, albeit certain hope. Hope, because it is not yet manifested; certain because it will happen. When he was to start this changing the world campaign, here’s what he did – he saved Jews first, his own people and then the rest of the world. Everything was first to the Jews, before the Gentiles. His disciples who were to carry on with the campaign were commanded to tarry at home, preach at home before moving to the ends of the world. If anyone desires world peace, equity, equality, justice, charity; start from your home. That’s how to change the world: home first, then the world.

Oluwatosin Fatade


by Admin on

Where does the moon go to when the day breaks? How is it that it comes to fore only at night? Why is it crescentic today, half tomorrow and full on a public holiday? The answer isn’t far-fetched – the sun is the undisputed champion of skylights; the moon, well, is what it is. Call it dependent all you like, the universe depends on it after dusk.

For me, moon is hero. Moon is not the greatest light there is, but it shines; it stands its ground and mans its post. It doesn’t get jealous when the sun shows up yet again. I know this because times over, the drill is the same: dusk-dawn-dusk, repeat. What if it tried just once at least to outshine the sun? – call that ‘Mooncide

You see friends, moon knows its place and stays on its lane, be like moon. However bright or important the sun is, it is useless to the nightwalker, moon rules the night. Yeah, yeah, the sun’s light is what makes moon shine at all but at least the moon shows up while the sun turns its back.

Some of you folks are moon, except of course you are frantically trying to be sun. That is as futile as looking for the moon at noon! Focus on what you are and try to be the best at it, stop trying to be what you can never be – that is how to get enlisted on the failure train. It is better to fail at what you can be, because with subsequent trials, you’ll eventually win – that is how to have a success story. It is not a success story if you never win. Identify what is impossible and let it be; identify what requires effort and time and invest in it. Stop trying to be sun, you moon (I want to put an ‘r’ somewhere in this word), you ever seen the sun trying to be you?

Best know your place in this life and identify what part of the puzzle you are or should be. You’ll find peace in running the right race, there’s no wisdom in starting a race without a finish line. You should be able to exit this life with the satisfaction of having played your part for as long as you lived. You should be able to leave happily knowing that you’ve lived.
In case you’re lost or running another’s race; stop, find you and do you.

‘Tosin Fatade

Inspire (August Series)

by Admin on

Inspire yourself even if no one else will.
If you followed closely in the month of August on my Facebook timeline, you must be familiar with the daily stories that were aimed at inspiring you and all other readers. I have spent sometime compiling all the daily writings into one document.
The writings were produced and delivered one day at a time, but now you can read them all in one stretch, at a sitting. I hope you get overdosed on inspiration as you go through. If you do get inspired as I am sure you will, tell someone else to check this out too.
Find it here


Sustainable development goals

by Admin on

In the year 2000, the Millennium development goals (MDGs) were set towards year 2015. There were 8 goals in all, with targets and indicators for each goal. Some progress was made, some of the goals were realised to a reasonable extent but with much more still left to be done especially on a global front.

To consolidate on the plans and ensure continued improvement, another gathering in July 2014 saw the institution of the SDGs (Sustainable development goals) to span year 2015 – 2030, starting 25th September of 2015.

There are 17 global goals, inter-related SDGs, along with 169 associated targets. The SDGs are officially known as “Transforming our world”.

It is important for all hands to be on deck and for collaborative efforts to be in full swing towards realising these goals as at when due – 2030. The United Nations is open to partnerships from governments, agencies and global/local initiatives in support of the goals already set.

To partner, visit
Find out more details, and the 17 goals at


Marriage, a big deal

by Admin on

Written by OLAOMI, O.C.

Marriage is the union of a man and a woman, their coming together to become one. Beyond the biblical and moral aspect of marriage, there is more to it. It is a really a big deal. Two separate individuals from different family background, upbringing, social and moral views and different perspectives to life. One big deal about marriage is that it does not expire, at least it’s not supposed to ‘Until death does them apart. No one prays to die young, so your marriage lasts as long as your life does, unless you walk out of it at some point or your spouse, God forbid, either walks out or gets taken by death.

Beyond the few years of courtship and the ‘big day’ of the ceremony, when everyone departs, you will be left alone with your spouse, then the reality begins to dawn. Then you’ll be having these conversations with yourself: I’m no longer single, I can’t go to my parent’s house as often as I wish for vacation anymore – there’s no vacation from the matrimonial home. You’ll become a guest in what used to be your bedroom in your father’s house. The lovely decorations, paintings, and arrangement will become sweet memories.

In your “new” life, and trust me it’s brand new, greater responsibilities await. Your spouse, children, parents, in-laws, siblings, new friends, new neighbours, new colleagues in some cases all come into play, a new life indeed!
Singleness actually means what the word connotes. Single, not accompanied by anything else, not divided in parts, designed for the use of only one. Only You! You can decide not to cook if you don’t feel like eating, remain in bed after 7a.m if you’re not going anywhere, decide to travel to see family or visit a friend as soon as you so wish, or wear anything so desired. The list is endless really!

Now that the wedding bell has been jingle, things have changed from ‘I’ to ‘We’. If you’ll be making any decisions for yourself, you’ll have to consider others. If it’s not good enough for them but very good for you, you may have to drop them. Now, this is part of the big deal. It is as serious to the extent that if you want to consider getting an extra degree or advancing a career, a long list of sacrifices for spouse and children have to be considered amongst other things, Sacrifices that were non-existent before marriage. Every lone decision you’ve known how to take now has to be subjected to a panel of at least two!

You can no longer put on any cloth you deem fit or find most comfortable especially when nursing a baby as a woman. You can no longer get up at any time you deem fit or snooze the alarm eight times till you yawn out of bed.
Baby’s needs must be met (when you begin to have little versions of you running around), no excuse! What about your spouse? You must look good for him/her. No excuse as well! He deserves to wake up to see his beautiful bride everyday. His gorgeous, beautiful and charming girlfriend turned wife. She deserves to keep seeing that fit, agile and energetic boyfriend turned husband, not a lazy bag of bones. So many responsibilities that you must live up to really.

The kind of home you desire, you must build it in marriage. You cannot find a ready-made marriage to buy in the market! You may think of getting a help, but if your marriage will be successful there are some things you still need to do by yourself. A maid or help is just there to provide help or aid, not to substitute you or make you irresponsible.

Beyond all these challenges however, it’s about the best thing that could happen to you. You love someone who loves you back, nothing beats that. You live in an atmosphere of love and care. Your dreams are coming to fulfillment, you have someone with whom you can share your cares, worries and concerns. You have a happy home to go to everyday. What could be more fulfilling?
Enjoy it as long as it lasts bearing in mind the deal it entails.
Remember to prepare for it and enjoy every bit of it. I can only wish you a good marriage that lasts forever!

Baby Friendly Initiative

by Admin on

The Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched by WHO and UNICEF in 1991, following the Innocenti Declaration of 1990. The initiative is a global effort to implement practices that protect, promote and support breastfeeding.

Ten pillars of successful breastfeeding

Every member of the hospital staff that will directly or indirectly contact the mothers should have basic knowledge about breastfeeding. Such details should be penned down and easy to refer to or present to a new member of staff.

Practical sessions should be organised to train the members of staff on what has been written down. For example, each member of staff should be able to demonstrate to the mothers how they can position the baby properly for breastfeeding.

Pregnant women should be put through the benefits of breastfeeding throughout their antenatal visits and contact with the hospital, either through general organised sessions or one on one as they visit. Printed leaflets will also go a long way to achieve this.

Sometimes, the healthcare providers can so focus on keeping the mother stable that they forget the newborn needs to get fed and that quickly. Unless where otherwise indicated, help both mother and child to get on with breastfeeding within 30 minutes of delivery.

It is not enough to tell the mother to start breastfeeding, show them how (positioning and sitting posture) and make sure they get it right. Should there be a need for separation, either the baby is admitted into a neonatal unit or the mother is admitted, they should be allowed some time together, mother should express milk from their breast too where direct breastfeeding may be impossible.
This will prevent breast engorgement and abscess in the mother.

The breast milk contains all the baby needs – nutrients, water. A lot of people feel an irresistible urge to quench the baby’s thirst with water. Breast milk is ENOUGH!

Bonding between mother and child is very important especially in those first days, weeks and months of the baby’s existence. Neonatal baby units and wards usually have a room and space for mothers to be as close to their babies as possible in the event that the baby is admitted.

Feed the baby as often as possible, theirs isn’t thrice a day.

You know those “mouth plugs” and mouth pieces to stop the baby from crying? Stop using them.

A breastfeeding group or club doesn’t sound bad, there’s strength in numbers so why not.

It is advocated that babies be exclusively breastfed for 4-6 months, that is, at least 4 months of breastmilk only without water or any other thing. Other fluids should be introduced from 6 months. This is the ideal and best practice. Workplace practices should cater for this provision to encourage women to comply as possible.

Oluwatosin Fatade (MB;BS Ib)


Pills and Potions

by Admin on

Written by Oluwatosin Fatade

Items that are considered edible are on a spectrum: on one end are those tagged ‘food’; at the other, poisons. Drugs, pills are somewhere in the middle. The age-long tussle between the white man’s pill and alternative Potions, herbal mixtures and traditional preparations is simply a matter of science. All drugs are herbs, food and potential poisons, the dose being the difference. The trick is to know how much of it to use, when and when not to use, among other things.

The white man has subjected his herbs to scientific procedures of knowing the active ingredient, its mechanism of action, how the body gets rid of it, its potential effects (both desired and undesired) and the corresponding doses at which it is simply an edible substance, a drug for a certain ailment and a toxic item or poison. What is majorly obtainable in developing and third world economies is a “one-size-fits-all” approach. We cannot tell what part of the potion actually does the trick or how it does it, we just know it does some ‘magic’. Unfortunately in the same vein, some of our health challenges are due to it, but we cannot tell too objectively.

A lot of research goes into these things. It is harmful to assume one thing can cure all.
As a doctor, I find it hypocritical when patients and clients who ingest herbs, Potions and concoctions without protest turn to interrogators when a pill (whose profile is tested and known) is prescribed. Usually, those herbs are advised by a non-medical fellow, a grandma or neighbour or self acclaimed leaves expert. They cannot tell you how the drug works or what its side effects and long term effects will be, but the promise is always the same, it will work! Some times, maybe most times, they’re lucky on the short term. Of course they’ll be long gone and effects untraceable to them should an issue arise much later. Remember that a doctor or health professional will and should inform you of the desired and undesired effects of the drug he/she is about to offer you, usually with an allowance of the possibility that it may not work or that it may fail in some cases. But it is the very things that are known that we question, not the unknown.

If we question our herbs and Potions as much as we do already standardised drugs, we would have gotten nearer to inventing more drugs and improving their safety.

In using drugs, dosage is very important, and this depends not just on the ailment to be treated but also on the recipient of that drug. A lot of parameters are considered, from the person’s weight, age, sex, other illnesses present to a host of many others. For instance, let’s assume that drug JKL is used to treat headache. A 5 yr old is likely to get a higher dose of JKL than a 2yr old. Two 5yr old with significant weight difference will get different doses; another 5 yr old with headache and cough may get a drug totally different from JKL. This is not so with herbs and Potions. A cup of herb PQR prepared by Mr D may not be as concentrated as Mr Z’s preparation with same ingredients.

The safety profile of drugs are also very important, before they can gain wide approval for use. Item APF at a dose of 2 spoons can be edible and pass as food, 4 spoons may achieve cure for a certain disease, 6 spoons can be as lethal as poison. These doses cannot be arrived at by mere trial and error, imagine you’re the one who had 6 spoons of APF.

We need local research, we need to fund them. We sure have very potent items for different diseases among us. We must be able to isolate them and repackage them into acceptable forms, not just for the world’s use to achieve cure but also so we stop poisoning ourselves without knowing it.

Written by Oluwatosin Fatade

The world’s population is estimated at about 7 billion as at the last time of caring to find out. Going by the high turnover of pregnancies and deliveries I have personally taken record of, 10 billion must be warming up on the sidelines! I also think there are enough Myths about everything to go round a quarter of the world’s population!
Well, let’s talk about Myths surrounding pregnancy, and childbirth. There are tons of them, we all probably practice one or two without even knowing it. Either actively or passively, these have been passed down to us as meat to be chewed, re-chewed and churned out to offsprings like the cud.
I’m hoping your diet will change after reading this, you’ll focus on nutritional meat rather than these unfounded staples.

Umbilical cord care

Umbilical cord

  1. The umbilical cord must be heated or rubbed with something.
    Abort mission! Do not attempt to heat that newborn’s umbilical cord with lantern, candles or hot knife. Cases of tetanus have been recorded through such practices and yes, it is deadly! Some have done it without repercussions, don’t gamble. A baby’s cord will fall off within a week if it has been properly tied off. All you need do at all is clean it 2ce or 3ce daily within a clean wipe or cotton wool made wet with methylated spirit. And, don’t tuck it in with the pampers please! You don’t want shit and urine traveling up the cord into the baby, do you?
Breastfeeding, baby friendly initiative
  1. The baby needs water to quench thirst.
    Breast milk contains enough water to quench the baby’s thirst even if the baby is a desert. The breast milk is always served fresh at the right temperature and in the right safest container. Don’t risk your baby’s life just yet with the poor water you’re used to. Breast milk only for the first 4 to 6 months without adding water at all is very sufficient for your baby.
  1. The mother needs hot body massage so her belly won’t be big after delivery.
    El-Oh-El! “Belle wey wan big before go big even if you rub am with fiery furnace”. There’s something called puerperium. It stands for the period after pregnancy that it takes the body to return fully to its pre-pregnant status. Usually 6 weeks, you get where 41 days comes from now, don’t you? The uterus (a woman’s womb) gradually reduces in size after delivery and returns fully to previous state in 6 weeks. Warm compresses or hot massage that won’t burn the skin are good for the skin, it stops there. Don’t turn a newly delivered mother to a burns injury patient.

  2. In the face of probably the most painful experience of a lifetime, someone says to the mother in labour, don’t cry! Ehn? You say what? It is somehow associated with a bad omen, you’ll hear things like, if you cry the first time, you’ll always cry in labour. There’s nothing wrong in crying please, it means you’re normal and can feel pain, no one ever died from crying. There’s much talk about the Hebrew women, nor be only them o. I once had an 18 year old girl, likely Hausa. From the beginning of her labour till the end, we no hear pim! I had heard legends of how people from that tribe can endure pain, or bottle it in, I saw it live! I had to check her more frequently than others. For the sake of your doctor or whoever will take your delivery, please cry if na so e dey do you. Crying is not a sin.

Safety pin
  1. Safety pins, tying clothes into knots or putting a stone behind your ear will not ward off evil spirits. Evil spirits won’t give a hoot about language, the safety in safety pin is to keep your clothes safely tacked together. It is as impotent in keeping you safe as the status of a federal road safety corps officer in a road accident.
Snail, pregnancy myths


  1. Eating snails or okra won’t give your baby mental retardation or make them slow when born. Please eat these nutritious delicacies freely.
Anterior fontanelle, ọká


  1. Some people think eating Plantain is the cause of the “hole” in the baby’s head. They call it “ọká” and consider it a disease. It is normal for a baby to have this space, it is called Anterior fontanelle. It allows the baby’s head and brain enough allowance to grow and mature before it closes. It usually remains open for up to 1 year and a half normally.

Have any more beliefs that have been passed down and you’re not sure whether to discard or follow? Reach out to us, we’ll be glad to help out.

Your baby & your Blood group

by Admin on

Written by Oluwatosin Fatade

There are majorly 4 types of blood groups commonly known to us, and they have been ascribed their appellations following the ABO blood group typing. They are so named based on the type of blood cells found on the particular sample being tested, such that a person with blood group A has the A-antigen on the red blood cell, B blood group has B-antigen, AB has both A and B while O blood group has none (neither A nor B). There are many other types of blood groups but the above are the prevalent.
You must have also observed that a sign usually accompanies the above appellations, either a positive or negative. Thus, we have A +ve or –ve, B +ve or –ve, AB +ve or –ve, O +ve or –ve. The positive and negative signs are not arbitrary nor do they have anything to do with arithmetic. The ABO blood grouping system is one of many, the positive and negative belong to yet another grouping system of medical importance hence its prominence; this grouping system is the Rhesus grouping. There are two possibilities in the Rhesus grouping; it is either a Rhesus D factor is present on the red blood cell (in which case it is positive) or it is absent (negative).
The proper appellation of the mix of the ABO and Rhesus grouping will therefore appear as {A ‘Rh D’ positive} for a person with the A-antigen and Rhesus factor present on the red blood cell.

Of the 4 possibilities in the ABO and Rhesus mix, several distribution have been reported among Nigerians based on research work in different parts. The common indices to all however and what is most observed in clinical practice is that the Rhesus negative is not as common as the positive.

The importance of the Rhesus system as hinted earlier is brought to the fore in pregnancy. Let’s consider the scenario below for the purpose of explanation:

You’re O negative and your husband is O positive, your child can be either positive or negative. If negative, no problem but there’s no way to know the baby’s blood group until you’ve delivered. The way to know before delivery is cumbersome and unnecessary.
If the baby is positive, that’s where the concern comes. A concern that is well taken care of by the Rhogam injection.
Usually, for mothers who are O negative, it is just safe to assume the baby is positive since we don’t know for sure.

Rhogam injection is given to prevent Rhesus isoimmunisation which can occur whenever there is a risk or actual mixing of baby’s blood and mother’s blood. e.g any case of trauma, accident, physical assault or violence, abortion or miscarriage, delivery. It is to be administered when such mixing is suspected, a woman who has duly registered her pregnancy in a proper health facility will be put through this. The injection is to be administered within 72 hours of delivery.

O negative just means O Rhesus D negative, meaning you do not have the rhesus factor at all. Same way you are O because you don’t have either of A or B. So O positive which is the assumed blood group of the baby means the baby has rhesus factor, rhesus D positive.
So if there’s mixing, the baby doesn’t get affected. It’s the mother, the mothers body recognises the positive rhesus factors as foreigners and forms soldiers against them (antibodies). These soldiers don’t do anything in or to that particular pregnancy. But in any other pregnancy after that, remember soldiers against rhesus positive have been formed already, if they see any positive, they’ll fight it. Because they already know it as a foreigner unlike first time when they were “caught unawares”.
What Rhogam does is to clear these soldiers if they are formed so as to protect the subsequent pregnancies.

Once a woman has the Rhesus factor, meaning ‘positive’ follows the appellation of the corresponding ABO system she has, there will be no need for Rhogam since she cannot be sensitised to what she already has. Her body cannot form soldiers against positive rhesus factors which she already has in her own body!

If a woman has an abortion either spontaneously (what is commonly called miscarriage) or induced (meaning she sought it herself), it will be necessary to also put into consideration the blood group of both parties that formed the pregnancy to determine whether Rhogam will be needed or not.

Note that the different blood grouping systems are not a basis for discouraging intending couples from getting married as is being advocated in the case of Genotype to curb the prevalence of sickle cell anaemia.

Finally, know your blood group today (or tomorrow). Register your pregnancy in a hospital, ensure it’s not a quack you’re seeing. When you get pregnant, don’t miss your scheduled clinic visits and don’t hesitate to get more clarifications from your health care provider.

Got any questions or clarifications? Comment them below or send a mail to

Try out these questions; first 5 correct answers get rewarded (all answers must be correct).
Send your answers, Name, Email address and Phone Number to with the subject “QUIZ”. Entries close by midday tomorrow, Friday 26th May.

1. A man is AB +ve and his wife is B negative, will there be a possible need for Rhogam injection when she becomes pregnant?
2. Mention 4 other blood grouping systems asides ABO and Rhesus systems.
3. Is it advisable for a man with A positive blood group to father a child with a woman with O negative blood group?
4. What is the purpose of Rhogam Injection?

Terms & Conditions
– Medical doctors, nurses and health professionals are not permitted to send in entries
– All answers must be correct.
– No late entries
– No double submissions, no anonymous submissions
– All answers must be accompanied by your full name, email address and phone number.

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